Difference Between Cutting Fluid and Neat Cutting Oil

Difference Between Cutting Fluid and Neat Cutting Oil

During conventional machining or metal cutting, it will cause a significant amount of stress, heat, and metal chips. There are two types cutting oil for metal working, water soluble cutting fluid and neat cutting oil which can prevent over heating thus they elongate the life of the machinery and tools, and achieve cooling and lubricating properties in the process of machining.

What is a Neat Cutting Oil ?

Neat cutting oils present a solution which prevents corrosion and rusting and also increases the life of the machinery and tools made of metal. These oils also prevent over heating thus they extend the life of the machinery and tools. Also as these tools are serviced thus less electricity is required while operating these machines. They also help washing away the chips from the cutting area.

Neat cutting oils based on mineral oils and used for cutting without further dilution. They are generally blends of mineral oils and other additives. It can be used for applications from light machining to heavy-duty operations such as broaching, turning, honing and drilling, etc.

Even though, neat cutting oil have a good cutting performance, it is not easy to clean the workshop for operator. Nowadays, neat cutting oils is used from light machining to heavy-duty operations, especially hard parts.

What Does a Neat Cutting Oil Do?

Neat cutting oils as opposed to soluble or synthetic cutting fluids provide HIGH levels of lubrication to help reduce frictional heat as the cutting tool penetrates the metal or rubs against swarf. Even though the effective of cooling be limited, neat cutting oils also save energy by reducing cutting forces. Their simple nature makes them easy to manage for user.

On the other hand, the drawback of low operator acceptance due to misting and the slippery conditions they create throughout the work place.

What is a Cutting Fluid (Metalworking Coolant)?

Water soluble cutting fluids are also referred to as cutting oils, coolant, soluble oils and cutting fluids which form an emulsion when added to water. It designed to provide cooling and lubrication during metalworking operations. The use of coolant extends cutting tool life, improves part finish, and improves productivity. Coolants are generally grouped into three major categories: soluble oils, semi-synthetics, and synthetics.

In continuous machining, cutting heat leads to increase in temperature at the cutting zone. To maintain the cutting temperature within limit, suitable cutting fluid (also called metal working fluid) can be applied for machining.

There are generally three types of cutting fluid

■ Emulsion Cutting Fluids

Emulsion cutting fluids are coarse insoluble phase mixtures forming oil-in-water emulsions. The emulsions are mixtures of base oil, emulsifiers, anti-wear, extreme pressure, anti-foaming additives, corrosion inhibitors, bactericides, etc. Medium viscosity petroleum-base or mixed-type mineral oils are usually used as mineral bases; their content in the emulsion can be up to 85%.

■ Semi-synthetic Cutting Fluids

Semi-synthetic coolants are metalworking fluid concentrates that contain a small amount of oil as well as synthetic lubricants and other additives. When mixed with water, they form a translucent fluid. Semi-synthetics combine the physical lubricity of soluble oils with the chemical lubricity, cooling and cleanliness of synthetic coolants. They have higher content of emulsifiers (up to 40%) and always contain low-viscosity (3-10 mm2/s at 50°C) mineral or synthetic oils, as well as extreme pressure, anti-wear and other additives.

■ Synthetic Cutting Fluids

Synthetic cutting fluids are mixtures of water-soluble organic products with molecular dispersion. They do not contain mineral oil base or petroleum which is form a clear fluid when mixed with water. Instead, they’re formulated from the alkaline organic and inorganic compounds alongside additives to prevent corrosion. They function well in their diluted form.  All of the varieties of cutting fluids, synthetic fluids offer the best cooling performance.

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